multiple choice answers

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

 

Knowing_online_assessment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Based on cells

WHAT IS A CELL?

a.The smallest unit that is able capable of performing life function

b.One of the smallest unit that is able capable of performing life functions

c. The only small unit that able capable of performing life functions

d.A cell is a small unit but is not capable of performing life functions

e.None of the above

  1. What is a prokaryotic cell made of
    1. Flagellum
    2. Peptidoglycan
    3. Cellulose
    4. Proteins
    5. None of the above
  1. What is the sixe of a eukaryotic ribose ?
    1. 40
    2. 70
    3. 50
    4. 80
    5. None of the above
  1. How do viruses survive
    1. Because they consist of mostly of RNA and therefore cannot survive without a host cell
    2. They do not survive
    3. They consist of a nucleus
    4. They feed on nutrients of a bacteria
    5. None on the above
  1.  As the cell size increases, the ratio of surface area decreases , this means
    1. Rate of diffusion slows down
    2. Rate of diffusing increases
    3. Rate of diffusion It is at equilibrium
    4. Diffusion remains the same
    5. None of the above

Multiple Choices

glycolysis

  1. Glycoysis  end product is
    1. Pryruvate
    2. 2 ATP
    3. 2 ATP and 1 NADH
    4. 4 ATP
    5. None of the above
  1. In the investment phase how many ATP is invested ?

a.1

b.2

c.3

d.4

e.0

  1. For every entering glycolysis,
    1.  2 ATP and 2NAD+ is used, 4 ATP AND 2NADH is generated and there is a net gain of 2 ATP and 2NADH
    2. 4 ATP and 2NAD+ is used, 4 ATP AND 2NADH is generated and there is a net gain of 4 ATP and 2NADH
    3. 1 ATP and 1 NAD+ is used, 2 ATP AND 2NADH is generated and there is a net gain of 2 ATP and 2NADH
    4. 2 ATP and 2NAD+ is used, 6 ATP AND 2NADH is generated and there is a net gain of 2 ATP and 1NADH
    5. None of the above
  1. Why is glucose converted to glucose 6 phosphste?
    1. To continue the reaction
    2. So that it is easily metaboloised
    3. So that it cannot leave the cell
    4. To allow it to leave the cell
    5. None of the above
  1. Which is important for regulation
    1. Aldolase
    2. Triose phosphate isomerase
    3. Pfk 1
    4. Hexokinase
    5. None of the above

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April 13, 2013 · 11:34 pm

PUBLISH PAPERS .. READ ALL ABOUT IT

So it’s coming down to the end of the semester and i have finally gotten my published papers done ….. yay !!!!

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The both are taken from  Pubmed

Firstly …………

Unfoldomics of human diseases: linking protein intrinsic disorder with diseases

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Secondly ………….

Human liver rate-limiting enzymes influence metabolic flux via branch points and inhibitors

authors Min Zhao and Hong Qu

The first really excited me as it was really  something that i could have related to and was indeed very interesting to study.  While the second paper also made me appreciate the few discoveries made in the biochem world that has contributed to a bigger picture in life.

Please i urge you to take a read of the following it just might spark your interest a bit 🙂

 RATE LIMITING ENZYMES

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Enzymes are catalyst that speeds up the rates of reactions. There are also enzymes known as rate limiting enzymes. Theses enzymes are low in velocity and therefore can influence the metabolic flux in pathways. This paper is aimed to show that rate limiting enzymes play a regulatory role in metabolic complexes.  The paper also speaks of the observation of rate-limiting enzymes and branch point metabolites and enzyme inhibitors in human liver. This study is important because the fact remains that the liver is the main organ to metabolize compounds in the body.

Studies prove that the relationship between biochemical compounds and enzymes is changing due to the adaptation to environmental conditions. They also suggest that it has an association with rate-limiting enzymes, which focuses on the instability control coefficients of an isolated enzyme. The rate limiting concept basically states that one reaction away from the equilibrium or optimum rate is then catalysed by a rate limiting reaction. This also suggest that the enzymes operate at a lower velocity than the others within the same metabolic pathway. From the information stated above it can be inferred that the lack of products formed  from a reaction is detrimental to the body. Unlike other factors that affect enzymes, the rate of a rate limiting enzyme is affected by the activities of these enzymes.

Flux  can be is restricted by rate-limiting enzymes in an individual pathway, however  is not as important as whether rate-limiting enzymes can respond to regulatory transmitting and triggering  subsequent metabolic events at the systematic level. Thus studying an individual pathway is not sufficient to identify the properties of global organization. The experiment also results in the systematic analysis of rate-limiting enzymes whereby 383 rate-limiting enzymes where manually curated. Theses organisms include, rats, humans, yeast, E. coli.

A short-term regulatory interaction between substrates and enzymes is called enzyme inhibition. This was also useful in the study because e enzyme inhibitors are applied to the study of metabolic properties. By using this knowledge, scientists can inevitably set goals in estimation of how effective regulation is in relation to inhibitors and pathway leavels. However the focus was primarily based on metabolic regulatory networks and the chemical structures of inhibitors.

The objectives which were set during lab work were mainly to find out:

  • How many rate-limiting enzymes are located before and after branch points?
  •  How do they influence flux together and transmit regulatory signals?
  •  How many enzymes can be regulated by in vivo inhibitors?
  • What kind of enzymes can produce in vivo inhibitors?
  •  What are the ideal inhibited targets able to accept and transmit metabolic signals among different pathways?

The results showed that, firstly enzymes that are considered to be rate limiting enzymes surrounds approximately seventy six percent of branched point compounds ion total.

Additionally, unlike pathways proved that they were had unique topological structures in terms of the composition of branch points and thus differed from the others.  A branch point in nucleotide metabolism was a little higher than in the other pathway groups in terms of proportion.

To end, the scientific results proved rate-limiting enzymes as a whole surround over three-quarters of the branch points in the metabolic network of human liver.

Thus, they can influence the flux through the branch points. This is because of the fact that nearly half of the in vivo enzyme inhibitors are produced by rate-limiting enzymes in human liver, and these enzymes can initiate inhibitory regulation and then influence metabolic flux through these inhibitors, which if not monitored clearly can be detrimental to the body.

Proteins and intrinsic disorder with diseases

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Proteins are considered to be essential part of the human make up. There functions includes muscle contraction, muscle recovery, blood clotting oxygen transport and is even the third form of energy.  Thus, protein dysfunctions, dependent on the extent can cause may cause development issues pathological conditions within the body.

The paper is bases on intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) in relation to intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs).  These proteins are deficient in tertiary or secondary structures but have the ability to complete key biological functions.  IDPs is basically naturally occurring unfolding or disordered proteins. This is because of the lack of a tertiary structure which is the first most stable structures in proteins. Studies in the biology realm have discovered that although unknown or unpopular to the society at large, IDPs and IDRs are abundant in different proteomes.  There main purpose being held mainly in regulatory functions linked with molecular recognition and signal transduction. This is also important as there are additionally linked to humans diseases example cardiovascular disease, amyloidases, diabetes, neurogenerative disease and cancer. Although this may seem out of the ordinary, unfoldomics this aids in disease analysis of other human diseases that are in sync with proteins

One type of IDP studied is α-Synuclein protein; this is because there is a relation t with this protein and    neurodegenerative disorders,   synucleinopathies.

The most common and known synucleinopathies are Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Down’s syndrome,) multiple system atrophy and neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation type 1 (NBIA1).

What basically happens is α-synuclein is sensitive to the environment and thus can easily adopt to different structurally unrelated conformations.  Via these conformations created, plasticity can be   determined and this is done by specific folding energy of that particular IDP.  When this occurs, the high energy landscape can now give a reasonable explanation to the conformations formed. . The interaction with a particular binding partner (or other changes in the environment) affects the IDP folding landscape making some energy minima deeper and some energy barriers higher, therefore determining the ability of such a protein to fold in a template-dependent manner

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April 13, 2013 · 10:56 pm

PUZZLE :)

 Because the mind is so powerful by doing simple creative things like puzzles we help create a mind map of topics that are related and this aids in revision 

Example of a mind map

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CAN YOU FIND THESE WORDS?

  1. CARBOHYDRATES            
  2. AMINO ACIDS                   
  3. HYDROGEN                       
  4. BONDS                               
  5. SULFIDE BONDS               
  6. REDUCTION                     
  7. CYSTINE                              
  8. FATS                                  
  9. YEILD                                   
  10. ESTER BOND
  11. CIS
  12. GLUCOSE
  13.  MALTOSE
  14. PFK 1
  15. GLUTAMATE
  16. FRUCTOSE
  17. LACTOSE
  18. ALPHA
  19. TERTIARY
  20. BETA
  21. LIPIDS

 

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SOMETHING TO THINK ABOUT

ok soo this blog is based on biochemistry however, i like to relate what i have learnt so that the knowledge learnt, is not as far fetched as it seems. Truthfully, biochemistry happens all the time and if see the beauty that is around us, learning will not be such a task but would be fun, because we appreciate the ” back ground ” work that our body does. why it happens . Every thing happens for a reason eg: there is a reason why we have hair all over our bodies. Little things that we take for grated.

So the following is some fun facts about our body……..

 

SOOOO DYK …. DID YOU KNOW

 

 The average brain consist of 78% water

. ¼ of  your bones are in your feet

. The tongue is the fastest healing part of the body

( thought this one was interesting)  People generally read 25% slower from a computer screen compared to paper

. the human fingers does not have any mucles. The muscles which move our finger joints are located in the palm and in the forearm

. the human body has 100 trillion cells

. the brain cannot feel pain although it processes pain signals the brain itself does not feel pain

. the tio of your fingers has enough strength to support your whole body

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  • The tips of your fingers have enough strength to support the weight of your whole body

 

  • When you are born with 300 bones in their body, but as an adult you only have 206 bones. This happens because many of them join together to make a single bone.

 

  • The outsides of a bone are hard, they are light and soft inside. They are about 75% water.

 

  • The strongest bone in your body is the femur (thighbone), and it’s hollow!

 

  • The smallest bone in the human body is the stapes bone which is located in the ear,it is also called stirrup .

 

  • Men get hiccups more often than women.

 

  • A sneeze can exceed the speed of 100 miles per hour.When a sneeze leaves your body ,it is at such a high speed that you should avoid supressing it.

 

  • It takes food only seven seconds to go from the mouth to the stomach via the esophagus, pretty fast ! right?

 

  • Enamel is hardest substance in the human body.

 

Fingernails grow nearly 4 times faster than toenails!

 

  • Women hearts beat faster than men. Also women blink more than men !

 

  • In one day ,your heart beats 100,000 times.

 

 

 

 

 

  • The normal pulse is 70 heartbeats per minute.

 

  • Blood is such a good stain that Native Americans used it for paint.

 

  • Did you know that Blood is 6 times thicker than water?

 

  • Our kidneys filter about 1.3 liters of blood every minute & expel up to 1.4 liters of urine in a day.

 

 

  • The capacity of an adult human bladder ranges from approximately 600 ml to 800 ml. The exact maximum capacity varies from person to person. But remember that the urge to urinate is triggered when the bladder contains about 100 to 200 mls , much lower than full capacity. As the bladder fills with fluid, receptors in the bladder wall get stretched.

 

  • Do you know a woman has approximately 4.5 liters of blood in her body, while men have 5.6 liters?

 

  • Your blood takes a very long trip through your body. If you could stretch out all of a human’s blood vessels, they would be about 60,000 miles long. That’s enough to go around the world twice.

 

  • Did you know that, our heart (which is one of the main muscles ) is so powerful that it can squirt the blood no less than 9 meters high? It’s because it’s programmed to deliver the blood even in the less accessible areas of the body, like the toes & the fingertips, and therefore, in order to do this, it’s necessary for the heart to create lots of pressure inside the veins.

 

  • People with darker skin will not wrinkle as fast as people with lighter skin.

 

  • The reason honey is so easy to digest is that it’s already been digested by a bee.

 

  • The only part of the body that has no blood supply is the cornea in the eye. It takes in oxygen directly from the air.

 

  • The sound you hear when you crack your knuckles is actually the sound of nitrogen gas bubbles bursting.

 

  • Women blink nearly twice as much as men.

 

  • It takes about 20 seconds for a red blood cell to circle the whole body.

 

  • Every drop of blood in your body is filtered by your body over 300 times a day.

 

  • Babies are born with pink lungs but they darken in color as we breathe in polluted air.

 

  • Your right lung is bigger than left lung! The left lung is small so as to adjust heart in that part !

 

  • Human hair and fingernails continue to grow after death.

 

  • You burn more calorie while sleeping than watching TV.

 

  • Almost half of total bones in human body are in hands & feet.

 

  • The Hyoid bone, in your throat ,is the only bone in your body which not attached to other bone..

 

  • Your skeleton keeps changing every 10 years, that means your bodies keep renewing themselves so every 10 year you have a new skeleton.

 

 

 

  • The best time for a person to buy shoes is in the afternoon. This is because the foot tends to swell a bit around this time.

 

  • Do you know left hand side of your brain controls right -side of your body whereas right-hand side controls left part of body .

 

  • Do you know everybody has a strong eye and one weak!

 

  • Pupils in eyes get their name because the picture they give is small ,like schoolchildren !

 

  • Rods & Cons are the two types of light sensitive cells in your eyes.Rods tell about brightness of color but Cones tell about what color it is. Cones don’t work well in night ,that is why colors look gray at night!

 

 

  • The brain grows quickest till the age of 5.!

 

  • A normal human being can survive for 20 days without eating but it can survive only for 2 days without drinking!

  • Your blood carries food & oxygen to all of your body.!

 

  • Body fat is not particularly hazardous to health untill the level of total body fat reaches 35% for men & 40% for woman

 

  • About 90% of what we eat is assimilated in the small intestine.

 

  • 14 bones make up the human face.

 

  • It is considered that average quantity of blood in a man is 6.8 litres wheas it is 500 ml less in an average woman

 

  • Hair is made of protein and keratin & has no blood supply.And common belief that shaving facial hair makes them grow faster or thicker is ,not true.

 

  • An average person has 100,000 hairs on his/her head. Each hair grows about 5 inches (12.7 cm) every year.

 

  • There are 60,000 miles (97,000 km) of blood vessels in each human.

 

  • The average adult can read 150 to 200 words per minute and the vocabulary of an average person consists of only 5,000 – 7,000 words.

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  • The only part of the body that has no blood supply is the cornea in the eye.It takes in oxygen directly from air.

 

  • The human heart creates enough pressure while pumping to squirt blood to 30 feet.

 

 

  • Hugging releases oxytocin,which helps to heal physical wounds,makes someone trust you more !

 

  • Do you know that your Toe-prints are also unique , just like your finger prints

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  • You know ,you have no sense of smell when you’re sleeping!

 

  • An average person has over 1,460 dreams a year!

 

  • The human body has enough iron in it to make 3 inches long nail.

 

 

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April 11, 2013 · 2:24 pm

glycolysis

GLYCOLYSIS 

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YEP THATS RIGHT THIS BLOG IS BASED ON GLYCOLYSIS  LOL

Sooo not one of my fondest topics in biochem but luckly there are means and ways on getting the process suck into that brain of yours.

i previously placed a video on it it is a song… i thought that was pretty kool and it gave you an understanding of the topic .

but here is a rhyme\ song that can also do the trick

 VERSE: 
Hey there little cell 
Why you looking so unwell? 
Could it be your ATP supplies 
Are starting to dwind-EL? 
Yes it’s true 
Did you know that (surprise lyric)?
‘Cause now you do… 

What this cell needs 
Is to eat some food in speed 
Obtain the glucose necessary 
For respiration to succeed 
You’re on your way 
You’ll be making ATP today 
Hip hip hooray! 

CHORUS: 
Oh, the cell gets energy 
In the form of ATP 
Glycolysis and then some fermentation 
The Kreb’s Cycle, then Electron Transportation 
It’s cell respiration 

VERSE: 
Hey there glycolysis 
When oxygen does not exist 
We’ll break down some glucose 
Into ATP and pyruvate 
In the cytosol 
Don’t forget NADH y’all 
But that’s not all! 

Fermentation won’t be missed 
If lack of O2 does persist 
Produced in plants is ethanol 
And lactose if you’re an animal 
O2… 
Will enter the mitochondria after glu- 
cose breaks down it’s true 

CHORUS: 
Oh, the cell gets energy 
In the form of ATP 
Glycolysis and then some fermentation 
The Kreb’s Cycle, then Electron Transportation 
It’s cell respiration 

BRIDGE: 
Aerobic respiration goes very far 
When you’ve got pyruvate and Vojtech’s guitar 
Let’s make some acetyl coenzyme A 
This part’s name’s the Krebs Cycle 
CO2 is out of the game 
And ATP is now produced again 

Next is the Electron Transport Chain 
Through which there’s a big energy gain 
32 ATP in the inner membrane 
The cristae’s the name… 

VERSE: 
A few things before we forget 
Our song is not quite finished yet 
A by-product is H20 occurring at the end, 
You know it’s true 
The ETC used NADH and FADH2 
From the Krebs,(oooooh!) 

CHORUS: 
Oh, the cell gets energy 
Overall, about 36 ATP 
Glycolysis and then some fermentation 
The Kreb’s Cycle, then Electron Transportation 
It’s cell respiration 
It’s cell respiration 

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DID YOU KNOW ? 

1) Glucose Produces Two Pyruvic Acid Molecules:

Glucose with 6 carbons is split into two molecules of 3 carbons each at Step 4. As a result, Steps 5 through 10 are carried out twice per glucose molecule. Two pyruvic acid molecules are the end product of glycolysis per mono- saccharide molecule.

2) ATP Is Initially Required:

ATP is required at Steps 1 and 3. The hydrolysis of ATP to ADP is coupled with these reactions to transfer phosphate to the molecules at Steps 1 and 3. These reactions evidently require energy as well. You may consider that this is a little strange if the overall objective of glycolysis is to produce energy. This energy is used in the same way that it initially takes heat to ignite the burning of paper or other fuels – you need to expand some energy to get it started.

3) ATP is Produced:

Reactions 6 and 9 are coupled with the formation of ATP. To be exact, 2 ATP are produced at step 6 (remember that the reaction occurs twice) and 2 more ATP are produced at Step 9. The net production of “visible” ATP is: 4 ATP.

Steps 1 and 3 = – 2ATP
Steps 6 and 9 = + 4 ATP
Net “visible” ATP produced = 2. <<<<<  VERY IMP

 

 

 

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some diseases related to an enzyme deficiency

ok so the pass two blogs consist of little notes on enzymes. howvere io found it rather interesting to blog on some diseases that can be derived from the lack of  enzymes with in the body.

the most popular one and the one  which was taught in the class is lactose intolerance. 

this refers to .>>>…>>…

 

lactose intolerance is very common in adults. It is rarely dangerous. Around 30 million American adults have some degree of lactose intolerance by age 20.

  • In Caucasians, lactose intolerance often develops in children older than age 5. In African Americans, the problem can occur as early as age 2.
  • The condition is normal among adults with Asian, African, or Native American heritage. It is less common in people of northern or western European backgrounds.

Other causes of lactose intolerance include:

  • Bowel surgery
  • Infections in the small intestine from viruses, bacteria, or parasites (most often seen in children, but can also occur in adults)
  • Intestinal diseases such as celiac sprue

that inna nut shell is what lactose intolerance is however there are more diseases out there which are related to the lack of enzymes 

LEST’S TAKE A LOOK …

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Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

Another inherited disorder, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, is the most common adrenal disorder among infants and children. This condition results from a deficiency of the enzyme that enables the adrenal glands to produce adequate quantities of cortisol. The body responds by stimulating the adrenal glands in an attempt to prompt cortisol production. As a result, the adrenal glands enlarge and produce more cortisol, as well as hormones that cause the body to reabsorb water and sodium, and other hormones that influence male sexual characteristics. An excess of male hormones can result.

 

Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency

An inherited deficiency of the enzyme pyruvate kinase causes red blood cells to break down, resulting in anemia. After G6PD deficiency, it is the second most common enzyme-related defect that can cause red blood cells to break down. Unlike G6PD deficiency, pyruvate kinase deficiency is present across all ethnic backgrounds. Symptoms of this deficiency include anemia, jaundice and lethargy

sooo i just thought that was something interesting to note isnt it great that we have this knowledge so we can continue to make this world a better place to live in

ok so until we meet again peace and love

 

 

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April 9, 2013 · 4:34 pm

The six main groups of enzymes

Class

Chemical Reaction Catalyzed

Sample Enzymes

Oxidoreductase

Oxidation-reduction in which oxygen and hydrogen are gained or lost

Cytochrome oxidase, lactate dehydrogenase

Transferase

Transfer of functional groups, such as an amino group, acetyl group, or phosphate group

Acetate kinase, alanine deaminase

Hydrolase

Hydrolysis (addition of water)

Lipase, sucrase

Lyase

Removal of groups of atoms without hydrolysis

Oxalate decarboxylase, isocitrate lyase

Isomerase

Rearrangement of atoms within a molecule

Glucose-phosphate isomerase, alanine racemase

Ligase

Joining of two molecules (using energy usually derived from the breakdown of ATP)

 

Acetyl-CoA synthetase, DNA ligase

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